Edward Hand Medical Heritage Foundation
     
   

In Sickness and in Health

“If you would the Doctor pay, leave your flannels off in May.”
- Anon

Yesterday’s medicine cabinet looked much different than today. It may have contained camphor, alum, sweet oil, quinine, castor oil, and possibly spirits of ammonia for medicinal use, and not much else. The 17th century French dramatist, Moliere wrote “Nearly all men die of their remedies and not their illnesses.” The 1700’s and 1800’s knew diseases like ague (malaria), typhus, scurvy, rickets, smallpox, tuberculosis, and a host of others that have ceased to be a threat due to medical advancements. Sterilization was not recognized as a factor in treating illness, and hygiene was not noted as a possibility to help prevent disease.

During the American Revolution, the number of soldiers who died from disease equaled those who died as the result of battle.

Treatments commonly used to combat disease included: leeches, bloodletting, blistering, enemas, emetics, and purgatives to induce vomiting. Leeches and bloodletting were practiced since the ancient times of human history. The more serious the problem, the more blood was let. Sadly, that was not always effective, and many times resulted in eventual death from infection or loss of blood.

Wounds were usually bound or crudely sewn together and poulticed. Sometimes they healed, sometimes they didn’t. Many a soldier, who survived the Revolution, carried a musket ball inside of him until his death. If the probing (ungloved and usually unwashed) finger of the surgeon could not locate the musket ball, it was not removed. Whiskey and opium were the essential painkillers of the time. If the wound did not heal, amputation was performed. If the patient lived through the surgery, and survived possible infection and blood loss, they were indeed fortunate.

An account from one homesteader portrays the effect of early medical practice: “The doctor came every day….he purged, he bled, he blistered, he poked – he never cured me.” 270

Early settlement of any area meant doctors and hospitals were not available. Pioneers learned quickly to set their own broken bones. Wounds and cuts were stitched with the same needle used to darn their stockings. Cures for a variety of illnesses that occurred were treated with a variety of remedies passed down from their grandmother, or learned from the Natives. There were potions, plasters, poultices, teas, and tonics that were made from local herbs that grew wild, or from items that grew in the garden. They either got well, or they didn’t. Some commercial remedies appeared in the 1800’s and were widely distributed by individuals in the area. These most often took the form of a tonic or salve. They offered remarkable relief and promised to restore health.

About 1829, John R. Rowand invented a tonic mixture advertised to treat fever and ague. The bottle came corked and sealed with a paper label bearing Mr. Rowand’s signature. It was sold and made available to our citizens by G. H. Horning at Fallmouth, A. Collins at Collins Ferry, and J. Landis, Bainbridge. 271

Newspapers of 1847, carried advertisements for Wright’s Indian Vegetable Pills. “Corrupt humors for one disease, when floating in general mass of circulation, are the cause of all kinds of fevers, but when lodged in various parts of the body, give rise to every malady incident to man: sold Abraham Collins’ store at Collin’s Ferry.” 272 Jacob Buckstresser and J. F. Beecher, Bainbridge, were among the highly respectable appointed agents for the sale of Wright’s pills. “Diseases of every name are Literally Driven from the Body.” 273 Truly this was the age of miracle medicine.

In 1887, Stanley Shireman and Samuel Rutherford embarked on the business of vending patent medicines. In 1889, William Coble, of Falmouth, was canvassing the area, probably door to door, as an agent for the sale of Gotschall medicine. J. T. Bare was an appointed agent for Locher’s renowned rheumatic remedy in Bainbridge, and it was reported he was doing a good business.

No mother in the 1880’s would be without Mrs. Winslow’s Baby Syrup or Kopp’s Baby Friend, which were liberally spiked with morphine. Both medicines indeed assured that your child would have a good night’s sleep. Cocaine, opium, heroin, and morphine were legal in the U.S. and readily available over the drugstore counter without a prescription.

In March 1889, Big Chief White Eagle was a leading attraction with the Red Man’s Koosaw Medicine Company. Word of their arrival spread quickly. Town hall was rented for nine days where they presented entertainment every night, for the bargain price of ten cents per person. The show varied from one evening to the next, enticing attendees to return and be sure not to miss anything..

The final evening, a handsome beadwork heart was presented to the prettiest lady in attendance, Miss Minnie Markley. A beadwork pocketbook went to the homliest man, who had two contenders for the title: H. Isaacs, Sr. and J. R. Brenner. The audience vote was in favor of Mr. Isaacs. A final presentation was made to the man with the biggest feet in the hall. This category had only one contender, Mr. Isaac Yerkes. On stage, his size was pronounced to be fifteen and he was unanimously claimed the winner. 274

Few remained complacent as the Doctor entertained with the art of ventriloquism. The cast performed plays of high moral standard and professional quality. Their medicine sold quickly along with the guarantee that it would do all that was promised. Receipts for the company amounted to $300. 275

Above all, home remedies prevailed. A bit of whiskey often was added to teas to aid in the medicinal cure. Sassafras tea, drunk regularly in the spring, helped thin the blood as well as immunize against boils and chills later in the season. Urine and manure were popular additives in a number of remedies. Horse or cow manure, cobwebs, and coal-oil were put on cuts to stop bleeding and (Are you ready for this?) to prevent infection.

‘Smelly’ feet and athlete’s foot were commonly cured by the person’s own urine. Smelly feet soaked in their own urine three consecutive evenings, air dried – would keep feet from smelling for about a month. This was also used as a remedy for athlete’s foot.

Common cold and cough – Peel and slice onion into dish. Sprinkle liberally with dark brown sugar or honey. Cover and set in warm place 6-8 hours. Dose: 2 t. as needed. Onion soup and onion poultices were frequently used to ward off illness or get relief from severe colds. It was also said that the juice of onion on the scalp was good for curing baldness. Tea with onion grated into it may lower blood pressure if used regularly and frequently.

Glenn Hipple remembered a bath in vinegar to combat sea ticks. It was not that many years ago when some of the older folks in the township remembered a doctor that kept a bottle of leeches as a remedy on his shelf. Home remedies were plentiful. Sometimes they worked; sometimes they didn’t. Preventative health care did not exist. There were no immunizations against disease. When a disease appeared in a community, it was feared and it usually spread rapidly, taking a toll on the entire community. Self–Help articles and books rendered personal advice on how to improve one’s life in every aspect from health-related issues to marriage. Advice from The Science of New Life, written by John Cowan, M.D., and published in 1869, suggests that men and women seek the services of a phrenologist (a specialist that studies the surface of the skull to determine a person’s character traits) before deciding to get married, and to make certain “the perfections and deficits of character are compatible.” A chapter was devoted to baths, and included complete instructions on “How to….” There were no fewer than six types of baths, and few saw any good in a bath where the entire body was completely immersed in water. As early as 1869, newspapers carried warnings such as “Don’t Bathe too Much!” It was hoped that people would not indulge in these luxuries with recklessness. Bathing in moderation was the watchword, along with a word of caution that “immoderately enjoyed, it becomes a very dangerous and damaging thing.” 276

As population grew in Conoy Township, the need for a local doctor was evident. But even he, was limited to “doing his best”, with the supplies he carried in his little black bag. When dire illness befell, they sent for the Doctor. Often, this was a ‘last resort’. Modern Dentistry was in its infancy in the 1800’s. The common cure for a toothache was to pull the tooth. Local physicians often included dentistry as part of their practice. An early account details one reaction to the process: “A female personage visited Dr. Beane’s office a few days ago for the purpose of having a troublesome tooth extracted; while the Dr. was preparing for the emergency the lady became frightened at the sight of the instruments and took a hasty departure, and has not been seen since.” 277

George Horn was a dentist, renting in Bainbridge-Centerville in 1847.

In 1869, Falmouth, Henry Bricker was listed as both dentist and jeweler. Dr. Bricker, dentist, was later in Bainbridge.

J. D. Becker was a Dentist in Bainbridge in 1880.

Dr. Gram, described as “the lightning tooth extractor” with his free concert company, was scheduled to visit town hall in Bainbridge, in February 1888, and give exhibitions and extract teeth without pain or price. 278 For some reason, he gave the town a wide berth and did not make an appearance. One can only imagine…Perhaps his reputation was not all he claimed.

In April, an article claimed that Toothache preyed on the public in the vicinity of Hancock. Whatever could have caused that?

Physicians and Health Care:

Wherever a settlement existed, it was not long until a traveling medicine wagon, or gypsy camp, or revival tent with a faith healer, made an appearance. History tells us that the belief in talismans, magic, and super-natural powers of healing, are steeped in profound religious beliefs and mixed with a practical knowledge of herbs. There was a vague line between deep faith and superstition, and often they went hand in hand.

Early Pennsylvania Dutch/German influence, which was so prevalent in this area, did not discount witches and hexes, but also included a profound faith in God. There were a number of local practitioners as well as those who came from a distance. Some local pow-wow doctors were still practicing well into the mid-20th century.

An article in the New York Sun, (January 1876) contained a revealing look at a powwow doctor in Lancaster County. The article called the woman “a backwoods sorceress and successful in the practice of primitive black art.” Known as Granny, she inherited a book of rituals and charms from her father’s grandmother. “Nothing would work unless I believed and know it would under the charm. I have never failed. I have brought back horses, and cattle, and money. I have brought back men’s wives, and daughters and sons; I have brought back husbands from the paths of vice to their firesides….I have studied the moon and the stars, and read their signs, and heard the voice of the spirits telling me this and this and this. I did as I was told and have yet to know of a single man, woman, or child I ever deceived or advised wrongly.” Some of the charms included: salt in the stocking prevents toothache; four eyelashes wrapped in muslin and carried in the left shoe will increase the sight. The farmers feared her, and had great confidence in her powers.

Faith healers were less common, but still made appearances and traveled from place to place, performing “miracle” healings. They sometimes arrived as part of a traveling tent revival. And there were those who just believed in the magic arts of healing. Dr. Myers, of York, came to town and practiced healing by laying hands on the part affected, medicine being discarded. It is not known if Dr. Myers was a faith healer or a practitioner of a mind over body form of healing. He conducted his healing as a business. Most of the doctors, who served this area, were located in Bainbridge.

Dr. David C. Watson (1790-1856, Bainbridge) was thought to be the first doctor in Bainbridge. Dr. Watson appeared in the 1817 Tax List for Bainbridge/Centreville. He was active in community affairs and politics. He still served the town in 1831, moving to East Donegal Twp. between then and 1840. Dr. Watson was residing in Portsmouth/Royalton in 1850. Sometime within the following years he returned to Bainbridge. He was unmarried, and was buried at Donegal Presbyterian Graveyard.

Dr. S. William Garret, Jr. appears as early as 1817 in Bainbridge/Centreville tax records.

Dr. Bartram Galbraith (1796/97–1826, Bainbridge) is another early doctor, practicing medicine by 1820. 279 The exact date of his arrival is unknown but he definitely was practicing medicine at Bainbridge280. In 1826, Dr. Bartram Galbraith, of Bainbridge, was paid $13 for services for Daniel O’Neal of Falmouth. 281

Dr. George Harris

Dr. George Brenneman, of Maytown, was paid $4 for a medical bill in settling the estate of John Hackenberger, who died in 1835. 282

Dr. George W. Reich (1804, York-1875), was paid $3.50 for medicine in settling the estate of John Hackenberger, who died in 1835. 1836-37, George Reich was paid $2 for medical attendance to Anna Mary, widow of George Hackenberger. 283

His son, Dr. George Winfield Reich (1844-1899) was born in Conoy Township. Although the Dr’s. Reich, practiced and socialized in Marietta, for a time they resided in land at the lower end of Conoy Township, and those who knew them, and lived in close proximity, frequently called upon their services.

Dr. George Alvin Harter (abt. 1864,–after 1940) was located in Maytown. He made house calls and frequently treated the folks of this area. During the building of Shock’s Mill Bridge, he set up a small office, near the location, to treat injured workers.

Dr. Asa Herring (1792-1837) attended Jefferson Medical College and had a thriving practice in Mechanicsburg, PA from 1815-1828, when he relocated to Elizabethtown. He was paid $2 for medicine, in settling the estate of John Hackenberger, who died in 1835. 284

Dr. Robert Henry Jones (1803–1863, Bainbridge) was in Bainbridge as early as 1834. He married Sarah Morrett Ekel/Eagle in 1833 and moved to Bainbridge where he established himself and raised a family that included children (five of the six born in Bainbridge, died in childhood). In 1836, Dr. Jones purchased Lot #47 from the estate of George Weaver, (Race Street, between Second Street and Apple Alley). This is probably where he lived and had his practice. He also owned lots #104, 105, 106, 107. Dr. Jones owned property, had a hotel/tavern, served as an estate auctioneer, and was one of the members of the first school board for the newly formed Conoy Township. Upon his death, his widow, Sarah M. and son, Samuel, inherited the property, and sold it Aug. 21, 1868, to George Bean. 285 Shortly thereafter, Samuel moved away.

Dr. Samuel Jeremiah Jones (1836, Bainbridge-1901, Chicago) Robert’s physician surgeon son, was living (and undoubtedly, working) with his father in 1860. He had a distinguished career in the practice and teaching of Ophthalmology and Otology. He owned several properties in Bainbridge, which he inherited as early as 1864. After 8 years in the Navy, he moved on to Chicago. 286 Quite a bit of property was owned and sold by Samuel. Lots #44, 45, and 46, with a 2-story brick dwelling house, were sold Dec. 9, 1867 to George W. Bean. On that same date, George Bean and wife Mary, sold Lot # “TRAP” (NE corner of Front and Race Streets) to Samuel J. Jones. This property housed the National Hotel, including a frame tavern house, tenant house, icehouse, cooper shop and other out buildings, and a well of water with pump. Dr. Samuel Jones sold this property in February 1868, to David Swartz.287 Samuel never married.

Dr. Lewis Filbert, attended Pennsylvania Medical College. At age 26, he was listed on the 1850 Census as a doctor in Bainbridge. During his stay in the village, he was politically active, but remained only a few years before moving on. While here, he lived with his brother and sister-in-law.

Dr. Jacob Adams (1812, Donegal, Ireland–1897, Bainbridge) a man of many talents, was in Conoy Township as early as 1850, working as a Canal boatman. By 1860, he was running a grocery store. Their son, John B., b. 1836, was living at home and also working as a grocer. Jacob served the area for several years as an auctioneer. May 1864, he paid a $20 fee for a license for this occupation and in 1866 he had to pay taxes for his auction sales. During this same period, Jacob and his first wife, Elizabeth divorced. Jacob married a second time, to Elizabeth V. Shaeffer, before 1866, and had at least four known children. He was a Democrat until a few years before his death, when he changed his political loyalties to that of the Prohibitionists. By 1880, he became a well-known cancer doctor and achieved great success, traveling not only throughout Pennsylvania, but also, Maryland and Virginia. He used a salve, “Adam’s Cancer Cure” for the treatment and cure of this disease. 288 Mrs. David Metzler, near Falmouth, had a cancer successfully removed from her foot. 289 He successfully removed a tumor from the left eyebrow of Henry Kinsey. 290 Levi Sweigart had a cancer removed successfully from his lower lip. 291 At Jacob’s death, he was buried in the cemetery, at Bainbridge, with his first wife, who had died in 1892. His second wife was buried with them.

Elizabeth V. (Shaeffer) Adams, (1835 -1904, Bainbridge) widow of Jacob, was recorded as a “cancer doctress” in 1900. It is not known if she attended any medical school. State requirements for practicing medicine did not exist. It would seem likely that she assisted her doctor husband, and learned at least enough to continue practicing.

Emma Regina Adams, (1868-1955) daughter of Dr. Jacob Adams, followed in her father’s footsteps, including some delicate removals of cancer. She was known to treat patients in the Harrisburg/Mechanicsburg area. Emma married Sherman T. Hawthorn.

Dr. Horace West (1829, NJ-1864, bu. Bainbridge) He was living at Bainbridge, and was listed as a member of the Lancaster City and County Medical Society (1853-1854). 292 He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, receiving his medical degree in 1853. Horace and Catharine Ann “Annie” Brenneman, (daughter of John S. Brenneman, Esq. and wife, Martha (Stehman) were married on March 4, 1856. 293 Annie was born in Conoy Township. They had two children. November 1861, found Dr. West in Marietta, taking Dr. Grove’s position. There, he also conducted a drug business along with Harrison Roth. 294 It seems he retained property and patients as he was assessed for IRS tax in 1863, as a physician in Conoy. He died in March 1864. He was universally beloved and his loss was much felt. 295

Dr. William H. Beane (brother to Dr. George W. Bean) of Bainbridge, “removed to Marietta, and in connection with Mr. Harrison Roth, will carry on the drug store formerly occupied by Dr. Grove in Main St. (the position recently held by Dr. Horace West).” The Dr. will however continue his practice as a physician. He lately graduated at the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, with high honors, and was very successful in his practice at Bainbridge. We know that he was a gentleman of excellent character, a good physician, and he came highly recommended. 296 Dr. W. H. Beane appears on the 1865 and 1866 IRS Tax Lists for Conoy Township, as a Physician with Income above $600. He was taxed in 1865, for having a carriage and horse, and again in 1866, for having a gold watch. In 1866, he purchased the handsome residence of the late Dr. Robert Jones, moved in, and practiced medicine. 297 By spring of 1867, the good doctor was again on the move. This time he moved to Middletown to practice there. Despite his being somewhat of a rover, he maintained a large number of friends in the
area. 298

Dr. John W. Bowman appeared on the 1866 IRS Tax Lists. He owned several properties in Bainbridge prior to 1871. His estate was sold by the sheriff, and Lot #49 was sold to Samuel Eby. 299 (This was on Race Street between Apple Alley and Plum Alley) Little is known about his time in this area.

Dr. George W. Beane (1839-1895, Bainbridge) He graduated class of 1866, from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. He married America Benner, daughter of Jacob Benner, Middletown prior to 1869, when he was practicing as a physician in Bainbridge. They had four children. Doctors of the area were always pleased to share good news with the community. Mrs. Albert Miller recovered from one of the most severe operations known to the medical profession, performed by Dr. G. W. Beane. 300 From March 1894, to July 1895, Dr. Bean suffered with “latent pneumonia”, a sequel to an attack of LaGrippe. Even doctors were not exempt. He expired at his home in Bainbridge. His obituary clearly tells the story of his life. “He was a beloved and trustworthy citizen and a member of the Church of God, at Bainbridge.” Dr. Bean had been a practitioner of medicine for nearly 30 years.

Dr. Abraham Clifford Wolf (A.C.W.) Beecher (1845, Bainbridge-1893, Philadelphia [bu. Bainbridge]) was the son of Jacob Franklin and Catherine Elizabeth (Bracht) Beecher. (Catharine was the daughter of Abraham and Catherine E. Bracht, of Bainbridge). A.C.W. was known to have an Allopath practice and spent his career as a well-known Philadelphia physician. He lived in Philadelphia all of his adult life and taught at Jefferson Medical College as well as had a private practice. He never married. Inscribed on the monument, in Bainbridge Cemetery, with him are his two younger brothers who died before him: Horace F. Beecher (1849-1867) and Howard C. Beecher (1866-1868). His parents likely placed the monument, and it would seem he returned home to final rest, with his brothers.

Dr. George T. Weseman, (1821, Prussia [Northern Germany]-1894, Bainbridge) Graduating from the Universities of Goettingen and Heidelberg, he came to America in 1845. He served in the Civil War as Assistant Surgeon and Surgeon. 301 Following the war, Dr. Weseman came to Bainbridge in 1867, where he speedily built up a fine practice, becoming one of the leading citizens of the community, taking a special interest in education. Nothing is known of his first wife. Dr. Weseman married his second wife, Florence Matilda Smith, of Bainbridge, daughter of Jacob and Anguline (Christ) Smith on November 19, 1867. William, only known child to Dr. Weseman’s first wife, died March 11, 1873, at the age of 17 years, and was buried at the Bainbridge cemetery. Dr. Weseman belonged to Susquehanna Lodge No. 364, F.&A.M.; Donegal Castle, K.P., and Bainbridge Lodge I.O.O.F. He was a faithful worker in the
Lancaster County Medical Society, and a member of the Methodist Church for over fifty years. The Weseman’s resided at the corner of Second and Arch Streets, Bainbridge, where they remained until his death.

Dr. Thorn was located at Centreville, in 1887. The only reference of him was found when his name appeared as part of the tragic report of young Oliver Kinsey’s suicide. Working on the farm of a Mr. Eshleman, and not feeling well, Mr. Eshleman “excused him from work that day and insisted upon Oliver visiting Dr. Thorn, at Centreville, who would prescribe him with probable beneficial results.” 302 He visited the physician, was given medicine and instructed to call again. Sadly, the medicine was not the cure, and the young man tragically ended his life. Other than the above article, Dr. Thorn remains a mystery.

Dr. Simon Mower Wissler/Whistler (1842, PA–1905, Bainbridge) Simon served in the Civil War, and later received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1866. He married Annie A. Brandon, and together they had six children. They were living in Kansas in 1880. Exactly when and why they came back east is unknown. Dr. Whistler and his wife were in Bainbridge, at least between the years 1893 and 1900. He served as a pall bearer at Dr. Bean’s funeral. December 1889, Dr. Whissler took ten-year-old Jacob Kieffer to a medical institute in Philadelphia to be treated for curvature of the spine. 303 Harry Kinsey was confined to his bed from an acute form of gangrene at the base of his amputated limb, the result of train jumping a few years before. Dr. S. M. Whistler performed a grafting process, transferring a large portion of skin from under his arms. The process was successful. 304 An illustration of the remarkable longevity of this district was shown by the fact that Dr. Whistler saw patients in one day whose ages were 77, 85, 87, and 97 years. 305 Dr. Whistler caused much excitement and attention when he copyrighted thirteen diagrams illustrating solutions to ‘the fifteen puzzle,’ which has in a few instances caused insanity in the ineffectual attempt to solve the mystery 13-15-14. A large circulation for it was predicted. 306 (This is the same classic puzzle with sliding numbers in a plastic square that is familiar to most children. In the 1800’s the puzzle was made of wood, metal, or ivory. It remains quite a challenge for the serious puzzle solver trying to get all the numbers in order)

Dr. Frank Wentz, of Bainbridge, in March 1896, assisted Dr. G. R. Rohrer of Lancaster, in removing the right eye of Peter Sides, of Bainbridge. 307 He was still in town and apparently had a garden with sweet peas in November 1897. When did he arrive and how long did he stay?

Dr. William Thomas Worth, (1872, PA–1945, Bainbridge) was raised on his parents’ farm in Lancaster County. At age 18, he entered State Normal School at Millersville and graduated in 1893. He attended and was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1897.308 March 1892, he received a fine collection of stuffed birds from the skilled taxidermist of Falmouth, George Walton. Nothing is known of his first marriage. He married 2) Elizabeth Nissley, daughter of Samuel and Ellen (Hershey) Nissley, in 1898. In 1899, he moved to Bainbridge, where, through knowledge of his profession and his manly character, he commanded a generous recognition, winning him many friends, and building a good practice. 309 He and Elizabeth had one daughter. Dr. Worth married 3) Maybelle/Mabel C. Brenneman, daughter of Harry and Adaline (Chapman) Brenneman, February 3, 1907. Maybelle was born in Bainbridge. They had 3 children. The Worth house (lot #49 in Centerville), or more specifically, the eastern end of the house, became the First National Bank of Bainbridge in 1908, and Dr. Worth served on the Board of Directors. The Worths also owned part of lots 91 & 92. He was still listed as a physician in Bainbridge, in 1914. Apparently, Dr. Worth decided to retire and they left Bainbridge sometime between 1914 and 1920, when he was living in Franklin Township, Chester County, as a farmer. Dr. Worth belonged to the I.O.O.F. and the Sr. O.U.A.M. where his presence and influence were greatly welcomed. He was a Republican, and a member of the Presbyterian Church. He belonged to The Pennsylvania State Society, The Lancaster City and County Medical Society, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia, PA and was a public-spirited citizen of the community. 310

Dr. John C. Stevers (1853, Cassville, Pa.–after 1930) His father died when he was two years old. He was brought up on a farm and studied medicine with Dr. James F. Thompson, of Cassville. He, and his wife, Mary, bought a place on Race Street sometime between 1920, (when they were in Spruce Creek Township, Huntingdon County, Pa.) and 1930, when they were in Bainbridge. It would seem that he arrived earlier. He appears on the 1920 Census and numerous folks remembered his faithful attendance to the community during the 1918 flu epidemic, despite being virtually helpless to stop the epidemic. ”Dr. Stevers, from Bainbridge, paced the floor, with head down and hands clasped behind him, saying what can I do?” 311 There are times when doctors cannot perform miracles.

Dr. Harry Walton Howden, (1882, York, PA–after 1930) was a Physician, (age 28) in Bainbridge in 1910, renting a house with his wife Josephine (age 27). They had been married for one year.

Dr. “Doc” Julius Abraham Blasser (1893, PA–after 1940) lived on the farm at the top of the Falmouth hill. Although he maintained an office in Elizabethtown, he was well known in the area for his “country ways” and house calls. Glenn Hipple recalled Doc Blasser’s ‘medicated cigarettes’ that supposedly possessed healing power. Glenn was allowed to smoke them whenever he had a cold or sore throat. According to Glenn, those cigarettes made you want to NOT have a sore throat, or to smoke. He declared, “I’m very sure they helped me be a nonsmoker.” Glenn’s mother, Alida (Mrs. James) Hipple, acted as a nurse and assisted the doctor after the birth of babies. It is said that he delivered over 1,000 babies while in this area. He was a man well-liked and respected by all who knew him.

Dr. Michael Gratch had an office in Maytown, but served the Bainbridge and Stackstown area faithfully. For a few years in the 1950’s, he maintained an office in the brick building which served as the bank building, now the Church of God parking lot along Second Street. For several years, his office was located in a house on upper Second Street, across from the Post Office. His wife, Mrs. Elinore Gratch, served for a number of years, during the 1950’s, as the school nurse at Bainbridge.

The 1860 Census listed the following nurses throughout the township: Rebecca Bracht (40) Falmouth area, Mary Brooks (21), Mary Cover (54) Bainbridge, and Mary Schroll (50) Bainbridge. 1880 – Elizabeth Sherborne. Emma E. Hiestand was listed as a nurse in 1914. The families of the area produced a number of offspring who also chose medicine and healing as a career.

In 1885, Miss Maggie Keiffer, whose parents lived in the area, was acting assistant at Philadelphia Medical Institute. 312

In March 1887, Dr. G. T. Wiseman, of Bainbridge, was in Baltimore attending the graduation exercises of Dr. John Andrew Bachman, of Falmouth. 313 It must have been exciting to have a local son become a doctor, but John chose to practice his trade in Maytown, Pa. He married Emma Lewis, (daughter of Randolph and Elizabeth Lewis) of Falmouth, June 18, 1887. Dr. Bachman had several patients from the township.

In the month of March 1887, of the 600 inhabitants of Bainbridge, thirty exceeded the age of seventy years. Henry Horst, upwards of 80 years of age enjoyed the distinction of being the oldest resident of the district. He was quite active for his age, and when the weather was favorable, he frequently took a twelve-mile walk for his health. 314 In February 1888, Frederick Ouch of Bainbridge, 78 years of age, was a most agile and active person. When in want of exercise, he would take a walk to Middletown and back, covering the distance in the brief space of four hours. 315 In December, the general health of everyone in the area was reported as remarkable.

As time passed, the 20th Century brought other doctors: Doctor Treichler, and in later years, Dr. Troy Thompson from Elizabethtown, were called upon for medical needs. There were also doctors in Middletown, and Marietta that were prevailed upon. And, there were surgeons and specialists available in Harrisburg, Lancaster, Baltimore, and Philadelphia.

It was, as life was (and is). Things happened; sometimes, terrible things. Farming held its own menu of dangers. The canal and railroad brought progress to this area, along with an influx of new opportunities for injury, and exposure to illness.

How many incalculable injuries occurred in the building of the canal, or work at the quarry, while blasting and moving massive rocks? How many smashed fingers and toes, bruised arms, or eye injuries? How many infections resulted due to dirt and sweat, because the work did not stop for these things? It would be impossible to account for all the injury, illness, disease, or death the community shared over the years. Daily living had plenty of challenges as well.

Womanhood and Birth was filled with health issues. How any girl learned the intricacies of womanhood remains a mystery. It must have been in hushed tones, among friends for the subject of sex and bodily functions were not spoken, even between mothers and daughters. Until the late 19th Century, Doctors (out of modesty/morals) would not look upon the body of a naked female patient. How many young girls, at the onset of their periods, must have been terrified to think they were dying or bleeding to death, or worse, that they had done something wrong to cause this condition?

Generations of superstition and ignorance made a normal part of maturing something to be feared and dreaded. Throughout the ages, superstition accompanied the menses: a woman’s very look would dim the brightness of mirrors, dull steel blades, wither crops, fruits or vegetables canned by a menstruating woman would spoil. Things did not improve with time. The superstitions may have changed with the times, but left all women living under “the curse” or “scourge of Eve”.

Early thought was that this womanly cycle purged women of “bad humors” thought to be the cause of all disease and illness. Very early pioneer women used moss and leaves as pads. Later, women used an assortment of towels and rags that they sewed into pads and had to wash to reuse, unless they were wealthy enough to afford clean rags or have servants to attend to this chore. A type of diaper was sometimes the preferred method of caring for this monthly issue along with added petticoats and multiple skirts to hide the fact. Isolation was often the chosen course. Combine that, with the use of an outhouse, and general lack of hygiene; health problems for women raged.

Whatever was learned about the time of pregnancy was learned from observing. More often than not, all of these life cycles were simply viewed as a matter of nature taking its course. Usually a mother, grandmother, or sometimes a neighbor woman, attended and assisted in the process, acting as a mid-wife. Some women made a living as midwives and nurses. Babies were born at home. Bellybands were used on the newborn infants to keep their backs and stomach’s warm and to prevent hernias. Until sometime after 1910, more than ninety-five percent of all births took place at home. The doctor was often sent for, but rarely arrived in time for the actual birth. Unlike today’s emphasis on getting up and about as soon as possible, the new mother remained in bed up to 2–3 weeks. Someone else cared for older children, cooked the meals, and attended to the laundry. And sometimes, perhaps a few days or weeks later, by lamplight, a husband, or grandparent, would take out the family Bible and carefully inscribe the date and name of the new child.

Births were frequently heralded in the local news along with some commentary and congratulations. Large families were common and it was not unheard of for families to have 7 or 10, or even more, children. “The smiles which wreathe the countenance of George Kipp and George Brenner are caused by the arrival of a son and a daughter.”316 Things got a little lively around the usually quiet Exchange Hotel with the arrival of a baby girl to Mr. and Mrs. Dergan of that place. 317 William Hemperly, stone cutter, at Lock No. 4, is happy over the recent arrival of a nine pound baby girl.”318 1889 saw many births including the following: “John Dimeler, farmer, west of town, is as happy as a big sunflower – it’s a boy!” 319 “Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Zook, of the lime kilns, were made happy by the arrival of a bouncing baby girl.” 320 No. 8 daughter (no. 9 child) was born to Mr. and Mrs. David Brubaker. A fifteen-pound baby girl was the center of attention at the residence of S. W. Isaacs.

The survival of a child was cause for rejoicing. Infant mortality remained high until the mid-20th century. There were many infants that died before their second birthday: Little Ray (19 mo.) son of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Boreman, of brain fever; 321 Annie (5 mo.) daughter of Tobias Funk; 322 Rosa Ann, youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Levi Hackenberger died of pneumonia. 323 Abraham Lincoln Smith, 3y, 1m, 3d, son of Sheriff Smith. 324 Mable, infant daughter of Mrs. Beckie Williams died of malaria and was buried in the Union graveyard. 325 These are only a few. Whether complications of birth, pneumonia, accident, typhoid, the cause matters little. A sweet little life was gone. And sometimes, it brought death to the mother. Mrs. John (Elizabeth) Prescott died suddenly, one week after the birth of her thirteenth child. “The scene at the grave, when the children were offered a last look at the face of the departed mother, was one long to be remembered by all present.” 326

And if a woman survived all the hard work of farm life and child bearing, menopause was treated with nearly as many superstitions and as much fear. Since blood no longer flowed on a cycle, leeches and bloodletting were practiced to continue the process of purging the ‘bad humors’. Disease continued to challenge medical minds. Days off were because you were VERY sick and completely unable to work. That, and lack of sanitary habits (use of outhouses and no antibacterial soap) meant that germs spread quickly. Epidemics were feared. Quarantines were often imposed. A sign or a mark on the door warned neighbors and friends to stay away until the illness passed. Diseases and serious illness plagued the inhabitants of this place. There is neither space, nor time, to account every occurrence. Included are examples. Whenever illness or disease took hold, the entire community was affected.

* Typhoid Fever: Adam Ebersole, 12 year-old son, of Jacob Ebersole, of the Black Swamp, died at his father’s residence after a lingering illness of typhoid fever. 327 Emma, young daughter of Mr. And Mrs. Jacob Lewis died from typhoid. 328 Joshua Dimeler, aged ten years, youngest son of Henry Dimeler of the upper end, died of typhoid fever after one week’s illness. 329 Joseph Lindemuth, of Locust Grove, had a severe attack of typhoid. 330 Families did not escape, and in many local graveyards, the tombstones bear witness to their losses.

* Consumption/Tuberculosis: May 1885, Lewis Cobaugh, an aged and respected resident of Falmouth, was confined to the house, suffering the effects of consumption. In December, Lewis Cobaugh, (77), died from of hemorrhages of the lungs. He was the father of ten children, seven who survive him. 331 February 1887, Leander Ebersole, aged 21 years, son of Jacob Ebersole, recently died at his late residence in the Black Swamp, after a lingering illness of pulmonary consumption. 332 Mrs. Henry (Carrie) Nophsker, lingered for several years with this disease which finally resulted in her death. 333

* Measles, Mumps, and Chickenpox: In 1885, The Columbia Spy reported “Falmouth has the measles.” (Although measles is not viewed as an epidemic by today’s proportions, it must be assumed that large numbers in the town were affected). It was serious business. July 1885, the measles became epidemic at this place. There was scarcely a residence in town and vicinity that was not visited by it, the young and old alike suffering from its effects. September, chickenpox prevailed to a considerable extent among the children at this place. 334 January 1888, mumps and chickenpox made their appearance much to the disgust of little ones. 335

* Sore throat: September 1885, John Dintaman, of Ridgeville, suffered with throat affection for some time and was reported to be failing rapidly. 336 He succumbed a few months later. December 1888, a sore throat epidemic manifested itself in the township and a large number of folks were severely afflicted.

* Scarlet Fever: December 1885, two cases of scarlet fever were reported. By November and December of 1886, it raged through the township. March 1887, several cases of scarlet fever were reported in the vicinity of the Black Swamp. January 1890, scarlet fever made an appearance in Bainbridge and many little ones were affected by it.

* Pneumonia was prevalent. Some recovered, some did not. Only a few of the known cases can be listed. Mrs. Barbara (sic! should be Elizabeth) Rutherford, widow of the late Samuel Rutherford, residing with her son Samuel, west of town, was seriously ill with pneumonia. 337 Mrs. H. Isaacs, was dangerously ill with pneumonia, November 1885. 338 April 1889, Messrs. John Ney, Benjamin Shoaff, John Maize, John Camp, and Thomas Houseal were down with pneumonia. Miss Eliza Feltenberger was ill for some time with pneumonia. 339 Book agent, Mrs. Mary Ebersole had a severe attack of pneumonia. 340

* Whooping Cough: 1889, whooping cough raged among young and old in the Upper End. The medical fraternity predicted an epidemic of sickness in consequence of the recent flood.

* Malaria: Among those in 1887, who dealt with malaria were: Assistant agent Hummel 341 W. Isaac, 342 George Ashton, Sr., 343 Martin Hess, a farmer near Bainbridge, and his entire family, 344 Mrs. M Zook, 345 William Collins, track hand was off work with Jackson’s malaria. 346

* La Grippe/Influenza/Flu: The severe effect of this form of flu was a frequent interloper in the township, causing much illness. Teachers reported a daily decrease in attendance. In 1890, La Grippe was on the increase with most every family suffering from its effect. Dr. Whisstler reported a large number of cases of La Grippe with new cases occurring daily. Teachers reported a daily decrease of students in attendance, because of the illness. That same week in January, Dr. Beane reported the number of cases with La Grippe included: D. R. Brubaker, J. H. Myers, Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Shaeffer, Paris Engle, Harry Brandt, Harry Shaeffer, Mrs. Thaddeus Groff, Mrs. Emmanuel Stumph, and Misses Kate and Grace Myers. The following week, Messrs. Col. Trayer, Levi Good, Adam Smith, Adam Ebersole, and John Dimeler of the Upper End were doing battle with La Grippe. 347

* 1918 influenza (flu) epidemic swept through Europe and America. The word ‘pandemic’ did not exist. The epidemic claimed as many lives as the battlefields of World War I. Evelyn Hipple, young daughter of James and Alida Hipple, along Turnpike Road, was a victim of the flu. “Within a mile radius of Stackstown, six people succumbed to the flu.” Those who died: Grant Landis, Billy Green, Annie (Kendig) Shoemaker, (wife of Amos Shoemaker, expecting their seventh child), Mrs. Ed Rhoads (also expecting their seventh child), Claude Landis, Lizzie Bryan (Mrs. Harry) McCurdy. 348 The flu claimed others through the township; all their names are not known. The epidemic spread and took many of our community and left a feeling of helplessness and fear among the rest.

* Cancer and Tumors: Cancer is not a new disease. The residents of the township were not immune. In 1856, Dr. F. Hinkle of Columbia, performed an operation on a lady from Bainbridge, removing from the shoulder-joint and arm, a large fatty tumor implicating the main vessels of the arm. The cause of the tumor was in consequence of a bruise received upon her shoulder nine years before. She was reported to be getting along fine under the care of Dr. West at Bainbridge. 349

In the 1880’s, Dr. Jacob Adams had great success in the cure and treatment of cancer to many people. (See Dr. Adams in this chapter)

1887, Adam Smith, a prominent citizen of Bainbridge, was afflicted with the growth of a fibrous tumor on the nape of his neck for twenty years. Mr. Smith previously evaded any persuasions to have the tumor removed. However, it grew. From its first appearance as a small pimple, it increased over the years to enormous proportions as that of a ten-pin ball. Its position on the nape of the neck had occasioned much inconvenience and considerable pain. Finally he consented to have it removed. Dr. G. T. Weseman, with Dr. Whisler as assistant, called on him at his residence. Preparations were made. A light anesthetic was administered. Within a short time the tumor was removed. When the tumor was removed from the myriad of adhesions, and laid on the table, it resembled a huge ball of fibrous matter and weighed upwards of two pounds. The incision measured about ten inches. The wound was dressed and Mr. Smith was recovering from a successful surgery. 350

And there were the day-to-day things.

Good hygiene was not understood as a factor to good health. For most of the 1800’s, baths were considered harmful (being wet all over was asking for trouble). Following the Civil War and into the Victorian era, baths were once a week, usually in a large washtub in the kitchen, where the entire family used the same water. By 1909, fourteen percent of homes had a bathtub. Strokes, ulcerated limbs, paralysis, eye infections, pink eye, dropsy, rheumatism, and a host of home and farm accidents and illness remained things that required tending.

Mrs. George Brenner suffered a paralytic stroke and was found unconscious near her residence. She remained in critical condition. 351 She suffered paralysis of her right side from the previous year. 352 Mrs. Elizabeth Galbraith suffered a complete paralysis on her right side. 353

Miss Emma Sides, of Bainbridge, had a miraculous escape from death, from inhaling coal gas that escaped from a heating register while she slept. Miss Emma awoke and upon smelling the gas got up from her bed to open a window, but collapsed upon the floor. Her parents, asleep in the next room were awakened and rushed in to find her unconscious. She was removed to the open air and restoratives were applied. 354

Mr. Henry Machin, near Bainbridge, was in poor health for many years. He elicited the services of a Dr. J. S. Craine, a medical electrician, of Philadelphia, who diagnosed his case as being caused by a tapeworm. He prescribed a medicine and within two hours and thirty minutes, Mr. Machin was relieved of the worm with head and neck intact, measuring thirty-five feet long. 355

Demas Dibeler was badly poisoned by eating canned oysters. 356

Accidents and injury happened wherever there was work or play, and in some instances, just a moment of distraction from watchfulness. There were certain dangers connected to farming. Canal and railroad workers faced injury as part of daily work. And there were those who viewed the rails especially as a challenge, which often ended in severe injury or death. Amputation was the leading surgical procedure in the 1800’s. Regardless of occupation, and as statistics now claim, many accidents also happened at home; cuts and lacerations (often extreme), falls, and dog bites. Circumstances varied, but accidents and injury sustained often required a doctor’s expertise.

Carriage accidents, due to spills from broken wheels, going too fast, or a frightened, runaway horse often resulted in injury. Mrs. Anthony Shaeffer, an aged lady, received internal injuries in a carriage accident while riding with Mr. and Mrs. Henry Snyder, returning from a funeral. 357

Falling was a common issue, some with serious consequences. Mrs. Jacob Nissley, an aged resident of this locality, while ascending a flight of stairs at her residence, lost her balance when part way up and fell to the bottom, sustaining a severe fracture of the right leg above the knee. 358 Long term prognosis: severe injuries sustained and it was doubted she would ever be able to leave her bed. Adam Dennison, an aged citizen of the Upper End, having occasion to visit the hay mow on Tuesday, stepped on a board, which broke, and he fell through to the entry, a distance of about fifteen feet, sustaining severe injuries. 359

Henry Longenecker went into the woods to see his sons who were felling trees. In the process, Mr. Longenecker was struck on the head by a falling tree. He lingered in an unconscious state for nearly five hours before death. 360

Children were often the victims of accidents. Samuel Ebersole, a young son of Samuel Ebersole, broke his leg while coasting (sledding) at his residence. 361 Blanche, a young daughter of C. H. Snyder, was recently stung in the foot by a bee, which caused an immediate swelling of the whole body. The proper remedies were quickly applied. 362 Scott, 10-year-old child of Scott Jones, of Falmouth, was severely injured by being dragged by a train on which he attempted to jump a few days ago. 363

May, William King, residing near Falmouth, was seriously injured by falling from the second story of a building on which he was working. Mr. King, a carpenter, was engaged with Benjamin J. Fink at rebuilding at A. C. Smith’s, east of Collin’s Station. At the time of the accident he was putting down flooring on the second story of the building, and while thus engaged, he stepped backward into the stair hole that was left open, and was precipitated headforemost into the cellar below. Mr. Fink saw him fall and ran to his assistance, expecting nothing else but to find him killed. A board broke the fall, doubtless saving him from death. He was picked up in a bruised and unconscious condition. Dr. Beane of Bainbridge was summoned. 364 He suffered from severe bruises. Although no bones were broken, his system suffered a severe shock that kept him disabled from work for some time.

In September, Lizzie Herbert, aged 10 years, was struck by the Harrisburg accommodation train west. At the time of the accident she was walking along the bank. About six feet distant from the north track, she accidentally tripped just as the train was approaching, and falling towards the track, was struck by the engine and hurled some distance away. Company Physician C. E. Pease and Dr. Beane, of Bainbridge, examined her and found injury to be confined to the right base of her skull being crushed. She would not survive more than 24 hours.” 365 The funeral expenses were kindly defrayed by the railroad company. She was buried at Falmouth.

Frank Taylor, a resident of Falmouth, met with a severe and painful accident at York Haven works a few days ago. He was employed at the head of the watercourse as assistant derrick man, and at the time was engaged in moving a large stone, which was suspended, from the derrick. In some manner the chain fastening became loose and the stone falling caught him and pinned him to the ground. When released he was found to have sustained numerous bruises on the body, together with a severe fracture of the right leg, near the hip. 366

Gun injuries were commonplace. Urias Brandt had finished the chores on the farm where he was working and took his revolver from the trunk where he kept it. He was in the process of cleaning and oiling the gun in order to have it in good shape and readiness for the coming 4th of July celebration. Unmindful of it possibly being loaded, it suddenly discharged, the ball entering his left hand, making a frightful wound in the palm. He was taken to Dr. Beane in Bainbridge. The doctor found the ball cut deeply among the tendons of the hand and took an oblique course up through the wrist and lodged along the bone of the arm. Since the operation to remove the ball would prove very painful, Dr. Beane suggested an anesthetic but Mr. Brandt refused to take anything, saying he wanted to see what was going on. After careful cutting, the ball was successfully removed without a murmur from the patient. With his hand dressed, the patient placed the ball in his pocket and headed for home. 367

G. W. Walton and son, Fishel, had been out on the river fishing and were just returning to make landing at the lock at Falmouth. George got out in order to pull the boat out of the water, first placing the gun, which was of a breechloading pattern, and heavily charged, on the seat board of the boat. While pulling the boat out of the water, the gun was accidentally thrown from its position, and in falling, the hammer struck the bottom discharging it. Fishel, who had hold of the side of the boat at the time, received the full charge in both of his hands. It also passed through the side of the boat; Mr. Walton who was on the opposite side, received a glance shot in the face, and also sustained a severe powder burn of the right eye. Fishel, in severe shock, was taken to the home of his parents near the station, and everything possible was done to alleviate his terrible pain and suffering. Drs. Weseman and Whissler, of Bainbridge, were hurriedly summoned, who upon examination of the badly torn and lacerated hands, found it necessary to amputate the left about the wrist, and the thumb of the right hand. The other lacerated parts of this member were sewed up and every effort was made to save the remaining portion. 368

Anyone dealing with horses knows the potential for danger and injuries, April 1889, Granville Shoemaker, manager of the Collin’s flour mills, suffered from a fractured rib, the result of being forced against the partition of his stable while attempting to harness his horse on Tuesday. 369 Horace Kinsey, son of Simon Kinsey, was kicked in the head and seriously injured, while removing the harness off a horse. 370

June, Abram Coover, of the Upper End, while endeavoring to solve the mysteries of a dynamite cartridge with the aid of a piece of wire, his ideas were suddenly brightened by a terrific explosion that badly lacerated both hands. Dr, Wiseman and Whissler dressed the injured members, retaining half the thumb and two first fingers of the left hand. 371

Suicide was not unknown. Dark despair took hold and resulted in the tragic ending of life. Neighbors and friends would gather to help in whatever way they could. For some, there was no hope. For some, there was no tomorrow. Friends and family grieved these tragic losses.

If you have experienced the sudden way your world comes to a screeching halt with an accident or death, you share something in common with these ancestors. If you have ever waited by the bedside of a loved one as they hovered on the brink of death, you share the same fears and anxiety as these. Now remove telephones and cell phones, remove adequate lighting and temperature-controlled rooms. Remove the past 200 years of research and medical cures, the advances in equipment and knowledge, your tears and your prayers are the same as theirs.

Hmmm….nothing has been found that mentions one of the world’s oldest occupations. In the early west, they were referred to as ‘soiled doves’. In larger cities they were known as the ‘ladies of the evening’, later sometimes referred to as ‘women of ill repute’. Common language is less gentle with its labels. With the numerous taverns, hotels, and the influx of transient workers on both the canal and railroad, it seems hard to believe there were not women to address that part of society.


 

270 Bettmann, Otto L., The Good Old Days – They Were Terrible! Random House, NY, 1974,
p141
271 Columbia Spy, Columbia, PA: Sat. Sep. 9, 1848, p3
272 Columbia Spy, Columbia, PA: Sat. Nov. 20, 1847, p4
273 Columbia Spy, Columbia, PA: Sat. Oct. 16, 1847, p4
274 “Bainbridge Items,” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 6, 1889
275 “Bainbridge Items,” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 6, 1889
276 Columbia Spy, Columbia, PA: July 17, 1869, p4
277 “Bainbridge Items,” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 25, 1888
278 “Bainbridge Items,” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Feb. 4, 1888
279 1820 Tax Records: Mount Joy            
280 History of Lancaster County, PA; with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men, Franklin Ellis & Samuel Evans, 1883, Everts & Peck, p536, 537
281 Estate papers of Daniel O’Neal, Falmouth, d. 1826
282 Estate papers of John Hackenberger, d. 1835
283 Estate papers of Anna Mary Hackenberger, widow of George Hackenberger, 1836-37
284 Estate papers of John Hackenberger, d. 1835
285 Lanc Co Deed: 9-R-513 [4-27-1868]
286 A Group of Distinguished Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago, A Collection of
Biographical Sketches of Many of the Eminent Representatives, Past and Present, of the
Medical Profession of Chicago Compiled by F. M. Sperry, Chicago: J. H. Beers & Co., 1904,
pp206-207
287 Lanc Co DEED: 9-P-407 [Feb 5, 1868], recorded Feb. 6, 1868
288 Daily Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Dec. 11, 1897 (Obituary)
289 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Sep. 17, 1887
290 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Mar. 26, 1887
291 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 1, 1887
292 History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA: Everts and Peck, 1883
293 “Married on the 4th”, Columbia Spy, Columbia, PA: Mar. 8, 1856, p3
294 Weekly Mariettian, Marietta, PA: Sat. Nov. 9, 1861, p3
295 Weekly Mariettian, Marietta, PA. March 19, 1864, p3
296 Weekly Mariettian, Marietta: Sat. Nov. 8, 1862, p3
297 Mariettian, Marietta, PA: Sat. Dec. 15, 1866
298 Mariettian, Marietta, PA: Sat. Apr. 13, 1867, p3
299 Lanc Co DEED: 20-G-182 [3-31-1872] recorded Sep. 14, 1910
300 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 5, 1889
301 1890 Federal Census: Conoy Township, Lancaster County, PA: Special Census, Civil War
soldiers-survivors/widows
302 “Committed Suicide” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Mar. 26, 1887
303 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Dec. 7, 1889
304 Newspaper article – name and date unknown
305 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 3,1889
306 “Bainbridge Notes,” Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Fri. eve. May 22, 1885
307 “Eye Removed” The Daily Journal, Middletown, PA: Apr. 3, 1896, front page
308 Biographical Annals of Lancaster County p968
309 Biographical Annals of Lancaster County p968
310 Biographical Annals of Lancaster County p968
311 Hiestand, Mrs. Paul, Through the Windowa of Wickersham, Elizabethtown, PA: Y/Z Printing Co.
1986, p33
312 “Falmouth Happenings”, The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Wed. Eve. Apr. 8, 1985
313 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Mar. 19, 1887
314 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Mar. 5, 1887
315 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Feb. 18, 1888
316 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Feb. 25, 1887
317 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Jul. 28, 1888
318 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 20, 1888
319 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Jan. 19, 1889
320 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 3, 1889  
321 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 9, 1887
322 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 27, 1887
323 “Bainbridge Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Apr. 10, 1886
324 Weekly Mariettian, Marietta, PA: Sat. February 13, 1864, p3
325 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 4, 1888
326 “Falmouth Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Wed. Eve. Oct. 14, 1885
327 “Death of Adam Ebersole” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 9 1887
328 The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Wed. Eve. Apr. 29, 1885
329 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. May 14, 1887
330 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Dec. 15, 1888
331 “Sudden Death from Hemorrhages of the Lungs” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Sat.
Eve. Dec. 26, 1885
332 “Falmouth” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Wed. Eve. Feb. 17, 1886
333 “Died in Bainbridge” Aug. 16 – newspaper name and year unknown – possibly 1888 or
1889 (a poem in memory of Mrs. Nophsker appeared In “Bainbridge Items” The Journal,
Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 10, 1889)
334 “Falmouth Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Wed. Eve. Sep. 2, 1885
335 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Jan. 28, 1888
336 “Bainbridge Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Fri. Eve. Sep. 11, 1885
337 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Jun. 9, 1888
338 “Bainbridge Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Fr1. Eve. Nov. 27, 1885
339 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 20, 1888
340 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 27, 1888
341 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 2, 1887
342 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Sep. 8, 1888
343 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Sep. 1, 1888
344 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Sep. 22, 1888
345 “Bainbridge News” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 1, 1887
346 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 4, 1888
347 Newspaper clipping – unknown name and date
348 Hiestand, Mrs. Paul, Through the Windows of Wickersham, Elizabethtown, PA: Y/Z Printing Co.,
1986, p33
349 “Town and Country Matters” The Columbia Spy, Columbia, PA: Sat. Aug. 9, 1856
350 “A Painful Operation” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Jun. 25, 1887
351 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Aug. 24, 1889
352 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Sep. 1, 1888
353 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Nov. 17, 1888
354 “Deadly Coal Gas” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Feb. 20, 1886
355 “Tape Worm Thirty-Five Feet Long” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 30, 1887
356 “Falmouth Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Wed. Eve. Sep. 2, 1885
357 “Bainbridge Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Fri. Eve. Jan. 1, 1886
358 “Bainbridge Matters” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Fri. Eve. Apr. 3, 1885
359 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 28, 1888
360 Lancaster Intelligencer, Lancaster, PA: We. Mar, 30, 1870, p3
361 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Dec. 31, 1887
362 “Falmouth Notes” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Fri. Eve. Oct. 2, 1885
363 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Dec. 29, 1888
364 “A Terrible Fall” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Thu. Eve. May 21, 1885
365 “A Horrible Accident” The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Tue. Eve. Sep. 15, 1885
366 The Daily New Era, Lancaster, PA: Thu. Eve. Sep. 10, 1885
367 “Shot Through the Hand” The Journal, Lancaster, PA: Sat. Jun. 25, 1887
368 “A Sad Accident” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Oct. 5, 1889
369 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Apr. 13, 1889
370 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Sep. 23, 1888
371 “Bainbridge Items” The Journal, Middletown, PA: Sat. Jun. 1, 1889